Client Dependencies

See below for information about the dependencies required for client applications using Spring Cloud Services service instances.

What are the Client Dependencies?

To use a Spring Cloud Services service instance, a client application must be bound to the service instance and must include the necessary client dependencies. Although these are based on dependencies used by client applications with Spring Cloud OSS, you must use the Spring Cloud Services dependencies in your application if you are using Spring Cloud Services. See below for information about the structure and uses of the client dependencies.

The Bill Of Materials (BOM) Dependencies

The Spring Cloud OSS project encompasses a wide variety of subprojects, each with an independent release cadence. A release of the overall Spring Cloud project is called a release train, and includes particular versions of each of the subprojects. (See the Client Dependency Versioning section below for more information about versioning of the Spring Cloud OSS dependencies.)

Spring Cloud includes a Maven Bill Of Materials (BOM) file for each release train version. This file describes the subproject versions included in the release train. After importing the BOM file, a client application can reference one of the Spring Cloud subprojects without specifying its version, which is provided by the BOM. The subproject versions in the BOM are compatible with each other and represent the subproject releases included in the corresponding release train version.

Spring Cloud Services also includes a Maven BOM file for each version, serving similar purposes. The Spring Cloud Services BOM describes dependencies required for Spring Cloud Services, so that a client application similarly does not need to specify those dependency versions. The Spring Cloud Services BOM may override versions included in the Spring Cloud OSS BOM.

The Starter Dependencies

A Spring Cloud OSS project can include a library for use by client applications that work with its server component. For example, the Spring Cloud Config project includes a Spring Cloud Config Client library, which reads configuration properties served by a Spring Cloud Config Server server application and creates a Spring PropertySource for them. A Spring Cloud project may also take advantage of other open-source libraries on the client side. For example, the Spring Cloud Config Client library uses the Jackson Project for parsing JSON configuration.

To simplify dependency management for a client application, each Spring Cloud OSS project includes a starter: a maintained set of dependencies used by a client application, packaged in one Maven POM and included in the client application as a single dependency.

Each of the Spring Cloud Services services has a corresponding starter. Similarly to a Spring Cloud OSS project, a Spring Cloud Services starter bundles the dependencies used by a client application to consume the service. These dependencies are similar to those used by the corresponding Spring Cloud OSS project (for example, the Config Server is based on the Spring Cloud Config project), with some differences specific to Spring Cloud Services (for example, Spring Cloud Security OAuth2 is added so that a client application can navigate the security built into Config Server).

Including Spring Cloud Services Dependencies

Important: Ensure that the ordering of the Maven BOM dependencies listed below is preserved in your application’s build file. Dependency resolution is affected in both Maven and Gradle by the order in which dependencies are declared.

To work with Spring Cloud Services service instances, your client application must include the spring-cloud-services-dependencies and spring-cloud-dependencies BOMs. Unless you are using the spring-boot-starter-parent or Spring Boot Gradle plugin, you must also specify the spring-boot-dependencies BOM as a dependency. See below for compatible Spring Boot and Spring Cloud versions to use with a given Spring Cloud Services release.

Spring Cloud Services Spring Boot Spring Cloud
1.0.x 1.2.x Angel.x
1.1.x 1.3.x–1.4.x Brixton.x
1.2.x 1.3.x–1.4.x Brixton.x
1.3.x 1.3.x–1.4.x Camden.x
1.4.x * 1.5.x Dalston.x
1.5.x * 1.5.x Edgware.x

If using Maven, include in pom.xml:

  <parent>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
    <version>1.5.9.RELEASE</version>
    <relativePath/> <!-- lookup parent from repository -->
  </parent>

  <dependencyManagement>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>io.pivotal.spring.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-services-dependencies</artifactId>
            <version>1.6.1.RELEASE</version>
            <type>pom</type>
            <scope>import</scope>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-dependencies</artifactId>
            <version>Edgware.SR1</version>
            <type>pom</type>
            <scope>import</scope>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>
  </dependencyManagement>

If not using the spring-boot-starter-parent, include in the <dependencyManagement> block of pom.xml:

  <dependencyManagement>
    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-dependencies</artifactId>
            <version>1.5.9.RELEASE</version>
            <type>pom</type>
            <scope>import</scope>
        </dependency>

        <!-- ... -->

    </dependencies>
  </dependencyManagement>

If using Gradle, you will also need to use the Gradle dependency management plugin.

Include in build.gradle:

buildscript {
    repositories {
        mavenCentral()
    }
    dependencies {
        classpath("io.spring.gradle:dependency-management-plugin:1.0.4.RELEASE")
        classpath("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-gradle-plugin:1.5.9.RELEASE")
    }
}

apply plugin: "java"
apply plugin: "org.springframework.boot"
apply plugin: "io.spring.dependency-management"

dependencyManagement {
    imports {
        mavenBom "org.springframework.cloud:spring-cloud-dependencies:Edgware.SR1"
        mavenBom "io.pivotal.spring.cloud:spring-cloud-services-dependencies:1.6.1.RELEASE"
    }
}

repositories {
    maven {
        url "https://repo.spring.io/plugins-release"
    }
}

If not using the Spring Boot Gradle plugin, include in the dependencyManagement block of build.gradle:

dependencyManagement {
    imports {
        mavenBom "org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-dependencies:1.5.9.RELEASE"
    }
}

Config Server

Your application must declare spring-cloud-services-starter-config-client as a dependency.

If using Maven, include in pom.xml:

  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.pivotal.spring.cloud</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-cloud-services-starter-config-client</artifactId>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>

If using Gradle, include in build.gradle:

dependencies {
    compile("io.pivotal.spring.cloud:spring-cloud-services-starter-config-client")
}

The Spring Cloud Services starter for Config Server includes:

  • The Spring Cloud Config Client library
  • The Spring Security OAuth2 library

Service Registry

Your application must declare spring-cloud-services-starter-service-registry as a dependency.

If using Maven, include in pom.xml:

  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.pivotal.spring.cloud</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-cloud-services-starter-service-registry</artifactId>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>

If using Gradle, include in build.gradle:

dependencies {
    compile("io.pivotal.spring.cloud:spring-cloud-services-starter-service-registry")
}

The Spring Cloud Services starter for Service Registry includes:

  • The Spring Cloud Netflix Eureka Client starter
  • The Jersey Client libraries
  • The Spring Security OAuth2 library

Circuit Breaker Dashboard

Your application must declare spring-cloud-services-starter-circuit-breaker as a dependency.

If using Maven, include in pom.xml:

  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>io.pivotal.spring.cloud</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-cloud-services-starter-circuit-breaker</artifactId>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>

If using Gradle, include in build.gradle:

dependencies {
    compile("io.pivotal.spring.cloud:spring-cloud-services-starter-circuit-breaker")
}

The Spring Cloud Services starter for Circuit Breaker Dashboard includes:

  • The Spring Cloud Netflix Hystrix starter
  • The Spring Cloud Netflix Hystrix Stream library
  • The Spring Cloud Netflix Hystrix RabbitMQ Stream binder

Client Dependency Versioning

A release of the Spring Cloud Services client dependencies follows a release of the underlying open-source Spring Cloud components, which are based on particular releases of Spring Boot. For more information about the basis of Spring Cloud or Spring Cloud Services library releases, see below.

Spring Cloud OSS Releases

Each Spring Cloud major release is named after a London Underground station (as in “Spring Cloud Camden.RELEASE”). Minor releases are known as service releases and are designated SR[n] (as in “Spring Cloud Camden.SR7”), where [n] is the minor release number.

A given major release of Spring Cloud supports the current Spring Boot minor release and one Spring Boot minor release following. When a new Spring Boot major release is published, it will be supported only in the next major release of Spring Cloud. (The Spring Boot 2.0 release follows the Spring Boot 1.5 release; there was no 1.6 release.)

Spring Cloud Release Supported Spring Boot Release
Camden 1.4–1.5
Dalston 1.5
Edgware 1.5
Finchley 2.0

Spring Cloud Services Client Releases

The Spring Cloud Services connectors, as well as the starters dependencies that include the connectors, are versioned and released independently of the Spring Cloud Services tile. The connectors and starters are based on the open-source Spring Cloud client libraries for Config Server, Netflix Eureka, and Netflix Hystrix, and have a new release to follow each Spring Cloud release that affects these components.

A given minor release of the Spring Cloud Services starters uses a particular release of Spring Cloud.

Spring Cloud Services Starters Release Underlying Spring Cloud Release
1.2.0 Brixton.SR6
1.3.0 Camden.SR2
1.4.0 Camden.SR3
1.5.0 Dalston.SR1
1.6.0 Edgware.RELEASE

Spring Cloud Services Tile Releases

The Spring Cloud Services tile is versioned and released independently of the Spring Cloud Services connectors and starters. The tile contains the server-side components from Spring Cloud for Config Server, Netflix Eureka, Netflix Hystrix, and Netflix Hystrix Dashboard, and typically has a new release following each Spring Cloud service release that affects these components.

A given minor release of the tile includes server-side components from a particular release of Spring Cloud, typically the last stable release.

Spring Cloud Services Tile Release Underlying Spring Cloud Release
1.1.x Brixton
1.2.x Brixton
1.3.x Camden
1.4.x Dalston
1.5.x Edgware
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